Crimean Journalistic Migration:
Nature of Phenomenon and Characteristics
Gaiana Iuksel, Scopus Author ID: 57216205308 Web of Science ResearcherID AAB-2490-2021 PhD (philol. sci), Doctoral Candidate, Institute of Journalism, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 36/1 Illienka St., Kyiv, 04119, Ukraine
The main objective of the study is to reveal the essence and characteristics of the Crimean journalistic migration process as a social phenomenon, that emerged after the occupation of Crimea in 2014 (the term “occupation” is used in accordance with the UN General Assembly Resolution 71/205 of December 19, 2016, which indicates “temporary occupation” of Crimea – ed.). The methodology of the study is based on the principles of studying the processes in the
field of mass media as an integral part of general political and social life. The study was conducted using a variety of disciplinary methods of scientific knowledge of reality. A sociological questionnaire as general scientific method of empirical research was chosen as the main method. The methods of classification, generalization, observation, statistical calculation were used at different stages of the study. Since 2014 after occupation of Crimea the data on violations of the rights of Crimean journalists, activists, free authors, and bloggers have been introduced into scientific circulation.
The survey was conducted among 49 Crimean journalists and media representatives, among whom 43 participants lived in mainland Ukraine and 6 – in Crimea. For security reasons and to prevent pressure on journalists, the survey was anonymous and the journalist had the right not to provide personal data at his/her own request. The study represents the opinion and position of a separate group of Crimean journalists who performed professional duties in Crimea during the events of 2014. Due to objective reasons, it is currently impossible to conduct a comprehensive sociological survey to determine the position of Crimean journalists. Results of the study. The results of the survey form an idea of the Crimean professional media circle, which representatives, being the people with active life and civic position, unbreakable principles in civic position and professional activity – were forced to leave Crimea, because they rejected de facto the changed Crimean statehood. The study of their individual “cases” provides a general idea of the process of Crimean forced journalistic migration that emerged after 2014.
Due to systematization of information, a portrait of a modern Crimean journalist was created, who could not stay on the territory of the peninsula because of external forced circumstances. The answers received in the survey form an idea of the nature of persecution in the Crimea, focus on the forced transformation of the media landscape of the Crimea, changes in the journalistic environment, the destruction of the current information order. In our opinion, it is important that the survey results prove the existence of informational resistance from journalists and public circles in 2014, disagreement with the results of so-called “referendum” of March 16, 2014, refute the Russian propaganda messages about alleged expression of will and full agreement of the people of Crimea with a forced change of authorities.
KEYWORDS: Ukraine; Crimea; mass media; occupation; human rights.78_7