Photography and Development of Photo Industry in Ukraine: History and Modernity (to the 180th Anniversary of Photography)
Serhiy Horevalov, Doctor of Philology, Professor Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts 20 Chygorina Str., Kyiv
Natalia Zykun Doctor of Social Communication, Associate Professor, University of State Fiscal Service of Ukraine 31, niversytetska Str., Irpin city in Kiev
In the article the multi-subject phenomenon of photography, which clearly combines the fea-tures of a document, a work of art, modern technologies and a means of communication is stud-ied in the diachronic aspects using the methods of comparative analysis, systematization and generalization.
It summarizes the information about the long history of photography as a form of fixation of reality, as a way of storing and transmitting information. The changes in functional and instru-mental characteristics of photography are outlined.
The rapid expansion of the direction of development of photography in many Ukrainian regions as early as the late nineteenth and in the early twentieth centuries is indicated: formation of infrastructure; emergence of professional and amateur photo societies and organizations that have been active in professional and educational and promotional activities.
It is proved that active photography activity formed a public request for scientific study of pho-tography, its theory formation; caused the emergence of specialized periodical photo editions (“Photo-Cinema” (1924), “Photo for Everyone” (1928-1930) and “Photo – Socialistic Construction” (1932-1934). All this contributed to the emergence of a system of professionals training in photography, formal photo education, study of photography in art educational institutions. The prerequisites and the first steps of formation of photojournalism and the system of photo genres are traced.
The active participation of Ukrainian masters in production and improvement of photographic equipment is stated. It is said that in the 30’s of the twentieth century a significant step of state policy was made in development of the plants of mechanical engineering and chemical industry of Ukraine, which created the preconditions for development of photo industry. The considerable attention is paid to the major achievements of Ukrainian production of photographic equipment, first of all at the Kyiv Arsenal Factory.
KEYWORDS: daguerreotype; retouch; photo; camera; photo production; photojournalism.76_4